Hudson & Leslie
W. Hudson's (1818-1897) first patented apple parer utilizes a planetary gear system to rotate and revolve an apple past a stationary blade (Hudson, 1862). Two versions of this apple parer are known, the scarce Hudson & Leslie and the more common F. W. Hudson's Improved Apple Parer.
The earliest known advertisement for Hudson's 1862 patented design appears in Russel and Erwin Manufacturing Company's 1865 illustrated catalogue (Illustrated Catalogue of American Hardware, 1865, p. 309). The ad includes an illustration of the "Conqueror Apple Parer," which corresponds to the patented design and known examples embossed Hudson & Leslie (p. 309). The manufacturer of the Conqueror is not identified; however, Monroe Brother's Eclipse Apple Parer, Sargent and Foster's Patent Apple Parer, and Lockey and Howland's Turn Table Apple Parer are also advertised. Emerson indicates that F. W. Hudson worked for Lockey and Howland before he started his own business but the dates of his employment are not known (Emerson, 1888, p. 290). Examples embossed Hudson & Leslie Manufacturers are a mystery as no information about this company has been found other than the parers themselves.
Hudson established his own apple parer manufacturing buisiness, named F. W. Hudson, in 1868 (Leominster Pocket Directory for 1880-81, p. 8). We can infer from this information that Hudson started making the more common version of his first patented parer, embossed F. W. Hudson's Improved Apple Parer, c1868.
One mechanical difference between the Hudson & Leslie and the later F. W. Hudson's Improved Apple Parer is the mechanism used to push the paring arm off the apple once the skin has been removed. The Hudson and Leslie uses the mechanism originally described in F. W. Hudson's letters patent granted on December 2, 1862. The planetary gear pushes a second class lever out of the main hub that pushes the paring arm away from the apple. The pivot point for this lever extends below the paring arm, see image above. As the planetary gear continues its movement the arbor upon which it is connected takes over the job of pushing the paring arm so that the machine is ready to reload with another apple.
The arbor carrying the planetary gear in F. W. Hudson's Improved Apple Parer was redesigned with a cam that replaces the lever and accomplishes the same task. The images below compare F. W. Hudson's Improved Apple Parer with the more difficult to find Hudson & Leslie.
Emerson, W. A. 1888. Leominster Massachusetts Historical and Picturesque. Gardner, Massachusetts: Lithotype Publishing Company.
Hudson F. W., inventory, Improved Apple-Parer, 1862 Dec. 2. US37038.
Illustrated Catalogue of American Hardware of the Russell and Erwin Manufacturing Company: An Unabridged Reprint of the 1865 Edition an New Introduction by Lee H. Nelson, AIA. 1980. Baltimore, Maryland: Pub Press, Inc., p. 309.
Leominster Pocket Directory for 1880-81. Leominster: Hawkes & Tenney, p. 8.